Yes you can! Whether the template is being installed on a temporary URL or permanent URL you can use %SITE_URL% placeholder code within the html itself for all images.
So, instead of using http://www.domainname.com/images/imagename.jpg or http://host.pappapak12.com/images/imagename.jpg
you would use %SITE_URL%/images/imagename.jpg
Just upload your images for the template into the images folder and use that placeholder code as shown above. Then all images for the template itself will show up once the design is installed.